Article in Nature Communications
From: Laetitia Douguet, Serena Janho dit Hreich, Jonathan Benzaquen, Laetitia Seguin, Thierry Juhel, Xavier Dezitter, Christophe Duranton, Bernhard Ryffel, Jean Kanellopoulos, Cecile Delarasse, Nicolas Renault, Christophe Furman, Germain Homerin, Chloé Féral, Julien Cherfils-Vicini, Régis Millet, Sahil Adriouch, Alina Ghinet, Paul Hofman & Valérie Vouret-Craviari
Only a subpopulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients responds to immunotherapies, highlighting the urgent need to develop therapeutic strategies to improve patient outcome. We develop a chemical positive modulator (HEI3090) of the purinergic P2RX7 receptor that potentiates αPD-1 treatment to effectively control the growth of lung tumors in transplantable and oncogene-induced mouse models and triggers long lasting antitumor immune responses. Mechanistically, the molecule stimulates dendritic P2RX7-expressing cells to generate IL-18 which leads to the production of IFN-γ by Natural Killer and CD4+ T cells within tumors. Combined with immune checkpoint inhibitor, the molecule induces a complete tumor regression in 80% of LLC tumor-bearing mice. Cured mice are also protected against tumor re-challenge due to a CD8-dependent protective response. Hence, combination treatment of small-molecule P2RX7 activator followed by immune checkpoint inhibitor represents a strategy that may be active against NSCLC.